Of course, the criminal justice system necessarily entails many discretionary judgments by police, prosecutors, judges, and juries. Given the prevalence of negative images and stereotypes of blacks – especially young black men – as dangerous, violent lawbreakers, implicit biases in the criminal justice system will be especially difficult to overcome. Training may help to reduce implicit biases, but the effectiveness of interventions is unclear.
Derrick Darby & Richard E. Levy, Postracial Remedies, 50 U. Mich. J.L. Reform 387, 471 (2017) (citing Jonathan Feingold & Karen Lorang, Defusing Implicit Bias, 59 UCLA L. Rev. Discourse 210 (2012); Brian R. Jones, Bias-Based Policing in Vermont, 35 Vt. L. Rev. 925 (2011); Robert J. Smith, Reducing Racially Disparate Policing Outcomes: Is Implicit Bias Training the Answer?, 37 U. Haw. L. Rev. 295 (2015).