Makila Land Co., LLC v. Kapu, No. CAAP-12-0000547, 2016 Haw. App. LEXIS 456 (Ct. App. Oct. 21, 2016).

Hanai refers to a child who is reared, educated, and loved by someone other than the natural parents. The hanai relationship occurs most often within the family, so the child is rarely raised by strangers. Traditionally, the permanent quality of the hanai relationship made it a near equivalent of legal adoption.  Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie, The Lum Court and Native Hawaiian Rights, 14 U. Haw. L. Rev. 377, 391-92 (1992).

Makila Land Co., LLC v. Kapu, No. CAAP-12-0000547, 2016 Haw. App. LEXIS 456, at *19 n.9 (Ct. App. Oct. 21, 2016).