As a consequence of the state’s history, land ownership in Hawaiʻi is highly concentrated. The federal government controls nine percent of the land in the state; 39 percent is controlled by the state government and about 45 percent is in the hands of major private owners. As a consequence, land ownership, as much as land regulation, is of central concern to Hawaiians. Because land ownership in the state is so concentrated, the State Land Use Law in effect regulates competition among a relatively small number of landowners.* * * *See also the following articles: D. Callies, Land Reform in Hawaii: “Majoritarian Tyranny” or “Sensitive Social Policy?”, 12 Land Use L. & Zoning Dig. 35 (June 1983); D. Callies, Land Use Control in an Island State: Hawaii’s Statewide Zoning, 1 Third World Plan. Rev. 187 (1980); D. Callies, Land Use: Herein of Vested Rights, Plans and the Relationship of Planning and Controls, 2 U. Haw. L. Rev. 167 (1979); D. Callies, Regulating Paradise: Is Land Use a Right or a Privilege? 7 U. Haw. L. Rev. 13 (1985); B.A. Kudo, Nukolii: Private Development Rights and the Public Interest, 16 Urb. Law. 279 (1984); G.K. Lowry, Jr., Evaluating State Land Use Control: Perspectives and Hawaii Case Study, 18 Urb. L. Ann. 85 (1980); D. Mandelker & A. Kolis, Whither Hawaii? Land Use Management in an Island State, 1 U. Haw. L. Rev. 48 (1979); S. Nicholson, Hawaiʻi’s Ceded Lands, 3 U. Haw. L. Rev. 101 (1981); C. Selinger, J. Van Dyke, R. Amano, K. Takenaka & R. Young, Selected Constitutional Issues Related to Growth Management in the State of Hawaiʻi, 5 Hastings Const. L.Q. 639 (Spring 1978).
13-79D Powell on Real Property § 79D.06 (2015)