5-10 Treatise on Environmental Law § 10.03 (2015).

Hawaiʻi’s land use statute is the original (enacted in 1961) of a growing number of comprehensive state land use control schemes. Perhaps it was inevitable that the first such measure would be adopted by an island state, one subject to very rapid growth compressed within severely limited space. Hawaiʻi’s statute has vested broad authority in a Land Use Commission, consisting of nine members appointed by the governor.
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For a discussion of the role of the courts and the legislature in affecting development rights in Hawaii, see Tom, Development Rights in Hawaiʻi, 6 U. Haw. L. Rev. 437 (1984); Smith, Uniquely Hawaiʻi: A Property Professor Looks at Hawaiʻi’s Land Law, 7 U. Haw. L. Rev. 1 (1985).
5-10 Treatise on Environmental Law § 10.03 n.1 (2015) (citations omitted).